Memoirs of the Prophet (S.A.W)by Saifur Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri
Distribution of Spoils
In accordance with the agreement already concluded, the Jews would be obliged to evacuate Khaibar, but they were anxious to keep on cultivating the rich soil and fine orchard for which Khaibar was famous. They, therefore, approached the Prophet [pbuh] with the request that they be allowed to cultivate their lands and they would give half of the produce to the Muslims. Muhammad [pbuh] was kind enough to accede to their request.
The Messenger [pbuh] divided the land of Khaibar into two: one half to provide the food to be stored in case of any accidental calamity that might befall the Muslims, and for entertaining the foreign delegates who started to frequent Madinah a lot; the other half would go to the Muslims who had witnessed Al-Hudaibiyah event whether present or absent. The total number of shares came to 36, of which 18 were given to the people above-mentioned. The army consisted of 1400 men of whom were 200 horsemen. The horseman was allotted 3 shares and the footman one. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/137, 138]
The spoils taken at Khaibar were so great that Ibn ‘Umar said: "We never ate our fill until we had conquered Khaibar." ‘Aishah [R] is narrated to have said: "Now we can eat our fill of dates." [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/609]
On their return to Madinah, the Emigrants were able to return to the Helpers of Madinah all the gifts they had received. All of this affluence came after the conquest of Khaibar and the great economic benefits that the Muslims began to reap. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/148; Sahih Muslim 2/96]
The conquest of Khaibar coincided with the arrival of the Prophet’s cousin Ja‘far bin Abi Talib and his companions along with Abi Musa Al-Ash‘ari and some Muslims from Abyssinia (Ethiopia).
Abu Musa Al-Ash‘ari narrated that he and over fifty companions, while in Yemen, took a ship which landed them in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and they happened to meet there Ja‘far and his companions. He said, "We stayed together until the Prophet [pbuh] sent an envoy asking us to come back. When we returned, we found out that he had already conquered Khaibar, yet he gave us our due shares of the spoils." The advent of those men came at the request made by the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] to Negus, king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia), through a Prophetic deputy, ‘Amr bin Omaiya Ad-Damari. Negus sent them back, 16 men altogether with their wives and children on two boats. The rest of emigrants had arrived in Madinah earlier. [Muhadarat Tareekh Al-Umam Al-Islamiyah 1/128]
In the same context, Safiyah, whose husband Kinanah bin Abi Al-Huqaiq was killed for treachery, was taken as a captive and brought along with other prisoners of war. After the permission of the Prophet [pbuh] was sought, Dihyah Al-Kalbi chose one of them and she happened to be Safiyah. The other Muslims, however, advised that Safiyah, being the daughter of the chief of Bani Quraiza and Bani Nadir, should be married to the Prophet [pbuh], who agreed to their opinion, invited her to Islam, freed and took her as wife on her embracing Islam. The wedding feast consisted of dates and fat, and was held on his way back to Madinah at a spot called Sadd As-Sahba’.
After the conquest of Khaibar, a Jewish woman called Zainab bint Al-Harith offered the Prophet [pbuh] a roasted sheep she had poisoned. He took a mouthful, but it was not to his liking so he spat it out. After investigation, the woman confessed that she had stuffed the food with poison alleging that if the eater were a king, she would then rid herself of him, but should he be a Prophet, then he would be bound to learn about it. The Prophet [pbuh], however, connived at her treacherous attempt, but ordered that she be killed when Bishr bin Al-Bara’ died of that poison.
The number of Muslims who were martyred was controversial, but it ranged between 16 and 18, while the number of Jews killed came to 93.
The rest of Khaibar also fell to the Muslims. Allâh cast fear into the hearts of the people of Fadak, a village standing to the north of Khaibar, and they hastened to ask for peace, and be allowed to leave in safety, and give up their wealth in return for that. The Prophet [pbuh] entered into an agreement with them similar to the previous one with the people of Khaibar. Fadak was exclusively the Prophet’s because neither Muslim cavalry nor camelry were involved in fight thereby.
No sooner had the Prophet [pbuh] discharged the affair of Khaibar than he started a fresh move towards Wadi Al-Qura, another Jewish colony in Arabia. He mobilized his forces and divided them into three regiments with four banners entrusted to Sa‘d bin ‘Ubada, Al-Hubab bin Mundhir, ‘Abbad bin Bishr and Sahl bin Haneef. Prior to fighting, he invited the Jews to embrace Islam but all his words and exhortations fell on deaf ears. Eleven of the Jews were killed one after another and with each one newly killed, a fresh call was extended inviting those people to profess the new faith. Fighting went on ceaselessly for approximately two days and resulted in full surrender of the Jews. Their land was conquered, and a lot of booty fell in the hands of the Muslims.
The Prophet [pbuh] stayed in Wadi Al-Qura for four days, distributed the booty among the Muslim fighters and reached an agreement with the Jews similar to that of Khaibar. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/146, 147]
The Jews of Taima’, hearing beforehand about the successive victories of the Muslim army and the defeats that their brethren, the Jews, had sustained, showed no resistance when the Prophet [pbuh] reached their habitation. On the contrary, they took the initiative and offered to sign a reconciliation treaty to the effect that they receive protection but pay tribute in return. Having achieved his objective and subdued the Jews completely, the Prophet [pbuh] made his way back home and arrived in Madinah in late Safar or early Rabi‘ Al-Awwal 7 A.H.
It is noteworthy that the Prophet [pbuh], being the best amongst war experts, realized quite readily that evacuating Madinah after the lapse of the prohibited months (Muharram, Dhul Qa‘da and Dhul Hijja) would not be wise at all with the presence of the desert bedouins roaming in its vicinity. Such a careless attitude, the Prophet [pbuh] believed, would tempt the undisciplined mob to practise their favourite hobby of plundering, looting and all acts of piracy. This premonition always in mind, the Prophet [pbuh] despatched Aban bin Sa‘id at the head of a platoon to deter those bedouins and forestall any attempt at raiding the headquarters of the nascent Islamic state during his absence in Khaibar. Aban achieved his task successfully and joined the Prophet [pbuh] in Khaibar after it had been conquered.